Beyond the Public–Private Divide: GLOBALGAP as a Regulation Repository for Farmers



Published Jun 4, 2014
Safania Normann Eriksen


The purpose of this article is to find empirical evidence that can verify the seemingly new and growing interest in local food in Denmark, and shed light on what meanings the concept of local food holds in Danish print media. A content analysis of Danish print media is undertaken of articles reporting on local food over a 10-year period. A total of 993 articles are collected from national, regional and local newspapers as well as trade journals and magazines. Incorporating print media as agents in the construction of meanings of local food is a relatively understudied field of research. The article finds six major themes, which are central to the understanding of local food in Danish print media, namely ‘local food networks’, ‘food values’, ‘food system’, ‘food tourism’, ‘food events’ and ‘local food in supermarkets’. It concludes that there are important differences between print media sources; nationwide dailies portray national imaginaries, apart from local imaginaries portrayed in regional dailies and local weeklies. This said, local food cannot be understood without reference to the local scale. However, at the same time, both culinary globalization and culinary nationalism have resulted in the strong push for local food. Keeping with this, it is argued that the increasing interest in local food by mainstream supermarkets blurs the lines between the marginal and mainstream. Thus, local food can be understood both as flow and friction between dualisms of local–global and marginal–mainstream.

How to Cite

Eriksen, S. N. (2014) “Beyond the Public–Private Divide: GLOBALGAP as a Regulation Repository for Farmers”, The International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food. Paris, France, 21(2), pp. 209–226. doi: 10.48416/ijsaf.v21i2.150.
Abstract 238 | PDF Downloads 144


Aasprong, H. (2013) Entangled standardizing networks: the case of GLOBALGAP and Fairtrade in St Vincent’s banana industry, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 20(1), pp. 91–108.
Agreste (2007) Enquête structures 2007. Principales cultures selon leur superficie en 2007. Published online: , accessed 23 June 2014.
Bain, C. (2010) Governing the global value chain: GLOBALGAP and the Chilean fresh fruit industry, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 17(1), pp. 1–23.
Bain, C., Ransom, E. and Higgins, V. (2013) Contestation, hybridity and the politics of standards, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 20(1), pp. 1–10.
Bartley, T. (2007) Institutional emergence in an era of globalization: the rise of transnational private regulation of labor and environmental conditions, American Journal of Sociology, 113(2), pp. 297–351
Bernard de Raymond, A. (2012) L’Agriculture raisonnée, un échec? La concurrence entre normes environnementales sur le marché des fruits et légumes, in: P. Alpha ndéry, M. Djama, A. Fortier and E. Fouilleux (eds) Normaliser au nom du développement durable. Paris: Éditions Quae, pp. 63–80.
Bernard de Raymond, A. (2013) En toute saison, le marché des fruits et légumes en France. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
Blac k, J. (2002) Critical Reflections on Regulation, CARR Discussion Papers DP 4. London: Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Bonnaud, L., Bouhsina, Z. and Codron, J.-M. (2012) Le rôle du marché dans le contrôle des traitements phytosanitaires. L’exemple du secteur de la tomate, Terrains et Travaux, 20, pp. 87–103.
Busch , L. (2011) The private governance of food: equitable exchange or bizarre bazaar?, Agriculture and Human Values, 28, pp. 345–352.
Busch , L. and Bain, C. (2004) New! Improved? The transformation of the global agrifood system, Rural Sociology, 69(3), pp. 321–346.
Callon, M. (1986) Some Elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay, in: J. Law (ed.) Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Callon, M. (ed.) (1998) The Laws of the Markets. Oxford: Blackwell.
Callon M. (2006) What Does It Mean to Say That Economics Is Performative?, CSI Working Papers Series 5. Paris : Centre de Sociologie de l’Innovation, École des Mines de Paris.
Campbell, H. (2005) The rise and rise of EurepGAP: the European (re)invention of colonial food relations?, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 13(2), pp. 6–19.
Campbell, H. and Le Heron, R. (2007) Supermarkets, producers and audit technologies: the constitutive micro-politics of food, legitimacy and governance, in: D. Burch and G. Lawrence (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production and Consumption of Foods. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 131–153.
Casey, D. (2009) Three Puzzles of Private Governance: GLOBALGAP and the Regulation of Food Safety and Quality, UCD Working Papers in Law, Criminology and Socio-Legal Studies. Research Paper 22/2009. Dublin: University College Dublin.
CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2001) European Governance: A White Paper, COM(2001) 428 final. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Cha llies, E. (2013) The limits to voluntary private social standards in global agri-food system governance, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 20(2), pp. 175–195.
Codron, J.-M., Giraud-Heraud, E. and Soler, L.-G. (2005) Minimum quality standards, premium private labels, and European meat and fresh produce retailing, Food Policy, 30, pp. 270–283.
Compagnone, C., Auricoste, C. and Lemery, B. (eds) (2009) Conseil et développement en agriculture. Quelles nouvelles pratiques? Dijon: Educagri and Versailles: Editions Quae.
Connor, T. and Haines, F. (2006) Networked regulation as a solution to human rights abuse in global supply chains? The case of trade union rights violations by Indonesian sports shoe manufacturers, Theoretical Criminology, 17(2), p. 197–214.
CTI FL (Centre tech nique interprofessionnel des fruits et légumes) (2011) Achat de fruits et légumes frais par les ménages français en 2009. Published online: , accessed 1 July 2012.
Décosse, F. (2008) La santé des travailleurs agricoles migrants: un objet politique?, Études rurales, 182(2), pp. 103–120.
Doussan, I. (2004) Entre contrainte et incitation: analyse juridique de la qualification au titre de l’agriculture raisonnée, INRA Sciences Sociales, 3/04, pp. 1–4.
Durkheim, E. (1900) La sociologie et son domaine scientifique, in: E. Durkheim (1995) Textes. Éléments d’une théorie sociale. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, pp. 13–36.
Egan, M. (2001) Constructing a European Market. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ferrières, M. (2002) Histoire des peurs alimentaires. Du Moyen-Age à l’aube du XXe siècle. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
FranceAgriMer (2011) Les filières des fruits et légumes. Données 2010, Les cahiers de FranceAgriMer – Chiffres clés fruits et légumes. Montreuil: FranceAgriMer.
FranceAgriMer (2013) Production. Published online: .
Friedmann, H. (2005) From colonialism to green capitalism: social movements and emergence of food regimes, in: F.H. Buttel and P. McMichael (eds) New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 227–264.
Frison-Roch e, M.-A. (1998) Le contrat et la responsabilité. Consentements, pouvoirs et regulation économique, RTD civ, 1998(1), pp. 43–56.
GLOBALG AP (2011) Product Safety Standard Checklist. Cologne: GLOBALG.A.P. Published online: .
GLOBALG AP (2013) Integrated Farm Assurance Control Points and Compliance Criteria, English version 4.0, March. Published online: Graha m, D. and Woods, N. (2006) Making corporate self-regulation effective in developing countries, World Development, 34(5), pp. 868–883
Graz , J.-C. (2004) Quand les normes font la loi. Topologie intégrée et processus différenciés de la normalisation internationale, Études internationales, 35(2), pp. 233–260.
Graz , J.-C. (2006) Hybrids and regulation in the global political economy, Competition and Change, 10(2), pp. 230–245.
Gunningha m, N. and Rees, J. (1997) Industry self-regulation: an institutional perspective, Law and Policy, 19(4), pp. 363–414.
Hatanaka, M. (2014), Standardized food governance? Reflections on the potential and limitations of chemical-free shrimp, Food Policy, 45, pp. 138–145.
Hatanaka, M., Bain, C. and Busch , L. (2005) Third-party certification in the global agrifood system, Food Policy, 30, pp. 354–369.
HavAVinga, T. (2006) Private regulation of food safety by supermarkets, Law and Policy, 28(4), pp. 515–533.
Henson, S. (2011) Private agrifood governance: conclusions, observations and provocation, Agriculture and Human Values, 28, pp.443–451.
Henson, S. and Humphrey, J. (2010) Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains, Journal of Development Studies, 46(9), pp. 1628–1646.
Herzf eld, T., Dresch er, L. and Grebitus, C. (2011) Cross-national adoption of private food quality standards, Food Policy, 36(3), pp. 401–411.
Higgins, V. and Larner, W. (2010) From standardization to standardizing work, in: V. Higgins and W. Larner (eds) Calculating the Social: Standards and the Reconfiguration of Governing. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 205–218.
Hutch ins, E. (1996) Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kamp, M. vaVAn der (2013) Inferring the unknown: enacting organic standards through certification, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 20, pp. 109–125.
Lascoumes, P. and Martin, G. (1995) Des droits épars au code de l’environnement, Droit et société, 30/31, pp. 323–345
Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, B. (1996) Ces réseaux que la raison ignore: laboratoire, bibliothèques, collections, in: C. Jac ob and M. Baratin (eds) Le pouvoir des bibliothèques. La mémoire des livres dans la culture occidentale. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, pp.23-46.
Le Heron, R. (1993) Globalized Agriculture: Political Choice. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Lockie, S., McNaughton, A., Thompson, L.-J. and Tennent, R. (2013) Private food standards as responsive regulation: the role of national legisletion in the implementation and evolution of GLOBALG.A.P., International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 20(2), pp. 275–291.
Loconto, A. (2014) Sustaining an enterprise, enacting SustainaibliTea, Science, Technology and Human Values, doi: 10.1177/0162243914531989.
Marsden, T., Lee, R., Flynn, A. and Tha nkappan, S. (2010) The New Regulation and Governance of Food. New York: Routledge
McMicha el, P. (2005) Corporate development and the corporate food regime, in: F. Buttel and P. McMicha el (eds) New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 265–299.
Mouritsen, J., Ernst, J. and Moller Jorgensen, A. (2000) ‘Green’ certification as a managerial technology, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 16, pp. 167–187.
Neilson, J. (2008) Global private regulation and value-chain restructuring in Indonesian smallholder coffee systems, World Development, 36(9), pp. 1607–1622.
Otero, G. (2012) The neoliberal food regime in Latin America: state, agribusiness transnational corporations and biotechnology, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 33(3), pp. 282–294.
Ponte, S., Gibb on, P. and Vestergaa rd, J. (2011) Governing through Standards: Origins, Drivers and Limitations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stanziani, A. (2005) Histoire de la qualité alimentaire (XIXe-XXe siècle). Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
Star, S.L. (2010) This is not a boundary object. reflections on the origin of a concept, Science, Technology, and Human Values, 35(5), pp. 601–617
Tallontire, A., Opondo, M., Nelson, V. and Martin, A. (2011) Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in agri-food chains, Agriculture and Human Values, 28, pp. 427–441.