Governing the Global Value Chain: GLOBALGAP and the Chilean Fresh Fruit Industry

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.sidebar##

Published Jan 4, 2010
Carmen Bain

Abstract

An important argument within the agri-food literature is that power within the value chain has shifted from producers to global supermarkets chains. An example of this is GLOBALGAP, a standards and certification scheme launched by a handful of UK and European supermarkets, which allows them to govern their global value chains. This case study draws on in-depth interviews to understand how large-scale producers and exporters within the Chilean fresh fruit export sector have responded to GLOBALGAP. Rather than accept the role of standards takers, the organizational leadership of this sector has integrated itself within the decision-making structures of GLOBALGAP as standards makers. From their perspective, GLOBALGAP is a tool that will help consolidate and advance their position as world leaders in the export of fresh fruits. While the rising power of retailers is extraordinary, this study demonstrates that we cannot ignore how large-scale producers and exporters are also positioning themselves to negotiate, lead, and advance their own interests.

How to Cite

[1]
Bain, C. 2010. Governing the Global Value Chain: GLOBALGAP and the Chilean Fresh Fruit Industry . The International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food. 17, 1 (Jan. 2010), 1-23. DOI:https://doi.org/10.48416/ijsaf.v17i1.265.
Abstract 64 | PDF Downloads 33

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Bain, C. (2010) Structuring the flexible and feminized labor market: GlobalGaP standards for agricultural labor in Chile, Signs, 35(2), pp. 343–370.
Bain, C. and HaTanaKa, m. (forthcoming) The practice of third-party certification: enhancing environmental sustainability and social justice in the global South?, in: V. HiGGinS, S. KiTTO and W. Larner (eds) Calculating the Social: Standards and the Re-configuration of Governance, London: routledge.
BarrienTOS, S., Bee, a., maTear, a. and VOGeL, i. (1999) Women and Agribusiness: Working Miracles in the Chilean Fruit Export Sector. London: macmillan Press.
BarrienTOS, S. and DOLan, C. (2006) Ethical Sourcing in the Global Food System. London: earthscan.
BraVOmina, J. (2009) Situación de la Industria de la Fruta Fresca en la Temporada 2008/2009. Santiago de Chile: ODePa.
BUrCH, D. and LaWrenCe, G. (2005) Supermarket own brands, supply chains and the transformation of the agri-food system, International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 13(1), pp. 1–18.
BUrCH, D. and LaWrenCe, G. (2007) Supermarket own brands, new foods and the reconfiguration of agrifood supply chains, in: D. BUrCH and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production and Consumption of Foods, Cheltenham: edward elgar Publishing, pp.100–128.
BUSCH, L. and Bain, C. (2004) new! improved? The transformation of the global agrifood system, Rural Sociology, 69(3), pp. 321–346.
CaLLaHan, a. (1989) Stores remove Chilean fruit: tons piled up as US probes cyanide threat, Boston Globe, 15 march.
CamPBeLL, H. (2006) Consultation, commerce and contemporary agri-food systems: ethical engagement of new systems of governance under reflexive modernity, Integrated Assessment, 6(2), pp. 117–136.
CamPBeLL, H. and DiXOn, J. (2009) introduction to the special symposium: reflecting on twenty years of the food regimes approach in agri-food studies, Agriculture and Human Values, 26(4), pp. 261–265.
CamPBeLL, H., LaWrenCe, G. and SmiTH, K. (2006a) audit cultures and the antipodes: the implications of eurepGaP for new Zealand and australian agri-food industries, in: T. marSDen and J. mUrDOCH (eds) Between the Local and the Global: Confronting Complexity in the Contemporary Agri-food Sector, Oxford: elsevier, pp. 69–94.
CamPBeLL, H., mCLeOD, C. and rOSin, C. (2006b) auditing sustainability: the impact of eurepGaP on organic farming in new Zealand, in: G.C. HOLT and m. reeD (eds) Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture: From Pioneer to Policy, Oxfordshire: CaBi Publishing, pp. 157–172.
CamPBeLL, H. and Le HerOn, r. (2007) Supermarkets, producers and audit technologies: the constitutive micro-politics of food, legitimacy and governance, in: D. BUrCH and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production and Consumption of Foods, Cheltenham, UK: edward elgar Publishing, pp. 131–153.
CeaCOVaCHiCH, m. De (2007) Protocolo Eurepgap 2007: Más Exigencias a la Fruta, 21 march. Published online , accessed 31 January 2010.
CHiLean FreSH FrUiT aSSOCiaTiOn (2004) GaP. Good agricultural Practices. Published online , accessed 30 January 2004.
CHiQUiTa BranDS inTernaTiOnaL (n.d.) Chiquita Achieves SA8000 and EUREPGAP Certifications of Its Banana Farms in Columbia, Costa Rica and Panama. Published online .
DíaZ, e. (2004) Prácticas de compra de las exportadoras frutícolas. el caso de las multinacionales, in: OXFam (ed.) Frutas y flores de exportación. Las condiciones laborales de las trabajadores en Chile y Colombia, Santiago de Chile: Oxfam, pp. 75–118.
eUrePGaP (2003) EurepGAP. The Global Partnership for Safe and Sustainable Agriculture, news Update, Köln: eurepGaP.
eUrePGaP (2004) EUREPGAP Control Points & Compliance Criteria. Fruit and Vegetables. Version 2.1-Oct04. Published online , accessed 6 may 2010.
eUrePGaP (2005a) Paris Conference: Towards Global Harmonisation 2005. Published online , accessed 20 February 2006.
eUrePGaP (2005b) EUREPGAP Global Report 2005. Published online , accessed 1 may 2007.
eUrePGaP (2007a) EUREPGAP Launches 3rd Version of its Good Agricultural Practice Standard in Fruit and Vegetables, Flower and Ornamentals, Integrated Farm Assurance, Integrated Aquaculture Assurance, Green Coffee, 8 February. Published online , accessed 12 February 2007.
eUrePGaP (2007b) Welcome to the Global Partnership for Safe and Sustainable Agriculture. Published online , accessed 13 February 2007.
eUrePGaP (2007c) General Regulations Integrated Farm Assurance, Version 3.0–Mar07: Part I General Information. Cologne: eurepGaP.
EUROFRUIT MAGAzINE (2008) News Focus GlobalGAP, January no. 403. Published online Fearne, a., DUFFy, r. and HOrniBrOOK, S. (2005) Justice in UK supermarket buyer-supplier relationships: an empirical analysis, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 33(8), pp. 570–582.
FOUCaULT, m. (1983) afterword: the subject and power, in: H.L. DreyFUS and P. raBinOW (eds) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 208–226.
FOX, T. and VOrLey, B. (2004) Stakeholder Accountability in the UK Supermarket Sector: Final Report of the ‘Race to the Top’ Project. London: international institute for environment and Development.
FOX, T. and VOrLey, B. (2006) Small producers: constraints and challenges in the global food system, in: S. BarrienTOS and C. DOLan (eds) Ethical Sourcing in the Global Food System, London: earthscan, pp. 163–177.
FreiDBerG, S. (2004) The ethical complex of corporate food power, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22(4), pp. 513–531.
FrieDmann, H. and mCmiCHaeL, P. (1989) agriculture and the state system: the rise and decline of national agriculture, Sociologia Ruralis, 19(2), pp. 93–117.
GÁmeZ BaSTén, m.e. (2007a) Temporada de frutas 2005/06 y perspectivas de 2006/2007, Temporada Agrícola, 27, pp. 5–18.
GÁmeZ BaSTén, m.e. (2007b) Temporada de Frutas 2006/07 y Perspectivas de 2007/2008, Temporada Agrícola, 29, pp. 5–18.
GaSKeLL, G., einSieDeL, e., PrieST, e., Ten eyCK, T.a., aLLUm, n. and TOrGerSen, H. (2001) Troubled waters: the atlantic divide on biotechnology policy, in: G. GaSKeLL and m.W. BaUer (eds) Biotechnology 1996–2000: The years of Controversy, London: Science museum, pp. 96–115.
GereFFi, G., KOrZenieWiCZ, m. and KOrZenieWiCZ, r. (1994) Commodity Chains and Global Capital. Westport, CT: Praeger.
GereFFi, G. (2005) The global economy: organization, governance, and development, in: n.J. SmeLSer and r. SWeDBerG (eds) The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Princeton, new Jersey: Princeton University Press, pp. 160–182.
GiOVannUCCi, D. and POnTe, S. (2005) Standards as a new form of social contract? Sustainability initiatives in the coffee industry, Food Policy, 30(3), pp. 284–301.
GLOBaLGaP (2010) Welcome to GLOBALGAP. Published online < http://www.globalgap.org/cms/front_content.php?idcat=9>, accessed 31 January 2010.
GraFFHam, a., KareHU, e. and maCGreGOr, J. (2007) Impact of EurepGAP on Small-Scale Vegetable Growers in Kenya, Fresh insights 6. London: international institute for environment and Development.
GWynne, r.n. (2003) Transnational capitalism and local transformation in Chile, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 94(3), pp. 310–321.
HarVey, m. (2007) The rise of supermarkets and asymmetries of economic power, in: D. BUrCH and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production and Consumption of Foods, Cheltenham: edward elgar Publishing, pp. 51–73.
HaTanaKa, m., Bain, C. and BUSCH, L. (2005) Third-party certification in the global agrifood system, Food Policy, 30(3), pp. 354–369.
HenSOn, S. and HUmPHrey, J. (2009) The Impacts of Private Food Safety Standards on the Food Chain and on Public Standard-Setting Processes, report no. aLinOrm 09/32/9D-Part ii. rome: FaO/WHO.
HenSOn, S. and rearDOn, T. (2005) Private agri-food standards: implications for food policy and the agrifood system, Food Policy, 30(3), pp. 241–253.
HiGGinS, V. and LaWrenCe, G. (2005) introduction: globalization and agricultural governance, in: V. HiGGinS and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Agricultural Governance: Globalization and the New Politics of Regulation, London: routledge, pp. 1–15.
HUmPHrey, J. (2005) Shaping Value Chains for Development: Global Value Chains in Agribusiness. eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit.
KLein, n. (2002) No Logo. new york, ny: Picador.
KOneFaL, J., maSCarenHaS, m. and HaTanaKa, m. (2005) Governance in the global agrifood system: backlighting the role of transnational supermarket chains, Agriculture and Human Values, 22(3), pp. 291–302.
Kremerman, m. (2005) explorando tres sectores productivos: salmonicultura, call center y agroexportación. Santiago de Chile: Observatorio Laboral, Central Unitaria de Trabajadores de Chile.
LaWrenCe, G. and BUrCH, D. (2007) Understanding supermarkets and agri-food supply chains, in: D. BUrCH and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production and Consumption of Foods, Cheltenham: edward elgar Publishing, pp. 1–26.
Leary, W. (1989) U.S. urges consumers not to eat fruit from Chile, New York Times, 14 march, p. a14.
LeViDOW, L. and BiJman, J. (2002) Farm inputs under pressure from the european food industry, Food Policy, 27(1), pp. 31–45.
maUSCH, K., miTHöFer, D., aSFaW, S. and WaiBeL, H. (2007) Impact of EurepGAP Standard in Kenya: Comparing Smallholders to Large-scale Vegetable Producers. Paper presented at Conference on international agricultural research for Development, University of Bonn, 11–13 October.
maXWeLL, J.a. (1998) Designing a qualitative study, in: L. BiCKman and D.J. rOG (eds) Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications, pp. 69–100.
mUrray, W.e. (2002) The neoliberal inheritance: agrarian policy and rural differentiation in democratic Chile, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 21(3), pp. 425–441.
O'rOUrKe, D. (2005) market movements: nongovernmental organization strategies to influence global production and consumption, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1–2), pp. 115–128.
O'rOUrKe, D. (2006) multi-stakeholder regulation: privatizing or socializing global labor standards?, World Development, 34(5), pp. 899–918.
ODePa (OFiCina De eSTUDiOS y POLíTiCOS aGrariaS) (2005a) Agricultura Chileno 2014. Una Perspectiva de Mediano Plazo. Santiago de Chile: ODePa.
ODePa (OFiCina De eSTUDiOS y POLíTiCOS aGrariaS) (2005b) Panorama de la Agricultura Chilena. Santiago de Chile: ODePa.
ODePa (OFiCina De eSTUDiOS y POLíTiCOSaGrariaS) (2008) Inserción de la Agricultura Chilena en los Mercados Internacionales. Santiago de Chile: ODePa.
ODePa (OFiCina De eSTUDiOS y POLíTiCOS aGrariaS) (2009) Panorama de la Agricultura Chilena. Santiago de Chile: ODePa.
OeCD (OrGaniSaTiOn FOr eCOnOmiC CO-OPeraTiOn anD DeVeLOPmenT) (2008) Agricultural Policy Reform in Chile, OeCD Policy Brief, 1–8 march. Published online , accessed 6 may 2010.
POnTe, S. and GiBBOn, P. (2005) Quality standards, conventions and the governance of global value chains, Economy and Society, 34(1), pp. 1–31.
rearDOn, T., Timmer, C.P., BarreTT, C.B. and BerDeGUe, J. (2003) The rise of supermarkets in africa, asia, and Latin america, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(5), pp. 1140–1146.
SANTIAGO TIMES (2006) Chile aims to be a world food powerhouse: interview with Chile’s agricultural minister Álvaro rojas, Santiago Times, 17 September.
STraTinG, J. (2008) increasingly stricter demands create weapons of competition in supermarkets, in: Chile. All Ways Surprising, 4 march, pp. 8–9, published online , accessed 1 February 2010.
STraUSS, a. and COrBin, J. (1998) Basics of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.
UTTinG, P. (2005) Corporate responsibility and the movement of business, Development in Practice, 15(3–4),
pp. 375–388.
Van Der GriJP, n.m., marSDen, T. and BarBOSa CaVaLCanTi, J.S. (2005) european retailers as agents of change towards sustainability: the case of fruit production in Brazil, Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 2(4), pp. 445–460.
VOrLey, B. (2007) Supermarkets and agri-food supply chains in europe: partnership and protest, in: D. BUrCH and G. LaWrenCe (eds) Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains: Transformations in the Production
and Consumption of Foods, Cheltenham: edward elgar Publishing, pp. 243–267.
Section
Articles