This article examines state and class restructuring in late nineteenth century Iran in connection with the reorganization of world agriculture under the “Second Colonialism.” Seeing the local within the global and vice versa, and linking economy, polity, and culture, I provide an alternative interpretation of the nature of nationalism in late nineteenth century Iran. I show that the relations of the Iranian state and the mercantile classes with the world market led to contradictory developments. Export cropping opened to merchants new opportunities for expanding their economic horizons. As they gained financial strength, they articulated and asserted their interests. At the same time, however, the Iranian state was being internationalized, as it increasingly represented the political and commercial interests of colonial powers. The domestic “contraction” of the state and the “expansion” of national commercial classes created tension between the state and the merchant bourgeoisie who, in the course of their struggles for state representation, merged with the rising pan-Islamic reaction against European colonialism. Pan-Islamism, by its capacity for articulating the economic nationalism of the mercantile classes in ethical terms, mobilized the masses of people for struggle for the nationalization of the state. Hence, nationalism and modernity in Iran took a nonsecular character.
How to Cite
Araghi, Farshad. 1987. “Agrarian Class Structure and Obstacles to Capitalist Development in Iran.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 17(3):293-319.
––––. 1989. “Land Reform Policies in Iran: Comment.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 74(4):1046-1049.
––––. 1995. “Global Depeasantization.” Sociological Quarterly 36:337-368.
––––. 1997. “Two Theories of Development: Development as a ‘Thing’ Versus the Relation of Development.” In The Living Legacy of Marx, Durkheim, and Weber, edited by Richard Altchuler. New York: Gordian Knot Books.
––––. 1999. “Food Regimes and the Theory of Value: Some Theoretical Remarks.” Unpublished manuscript.
––––. Forthcoming. “The Great Global Enclosure of Our Times: Peasants and the Agrarian Question at the End of the Twentieth Century.” In Hungry for Profit: Agriculture, Food, and Ecology, edited by Frederick H. Buttel, Harry Magdoff, and John Bellamy Foster. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Ashraf, A. 1970. “The Persian Land Reform, 1962-1966.” Iranian Studies, 3:50-54.
––––. 1980. Mavne-a’ Tarikhi Roshd Sarmayedari dar Iran: Dorehe Ghajariyeh (The Historical Obstacles to the Development of Capitalism in Iran). Iran, Tehran: Zamine Avery, P. 1965. Modern Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Azhand, Y. 1988. Ghiyaame Tanbaku (The Tobacco Uprising). Tehran, Iran: Shokufe.
Bayat, M. 1991. Iran’s First Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bonanno, Alessandro, Lawrence Busch, William Friedland, Lourdes Gouveia and Enzo Mingione, eds. 1994. From Columbus to ConAgra: The Globalization of Agriculture and Food. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Fazlullah, Rashid al-Din. 1939. Taarikhe Mobarake Ghaznavi (The History of Ghaznavids). Leyden: E. J. Brill.
Friedmann, H., and P. McMichael. 1989. “Agriculture and the State System: The Rise and Decline of National Agricultures, 1870 to Present.” Sociologia Ruralis 29:93-117.
Friedmann, H. 1993. “The Political Economy of Food: A Global Crisis.” New Left Review 197:29-57.
Gallagher, J. and R. Robinson. 1976. “The Free Imperialism of Free Trade.” Pp. 53-72 in Imperialism: The Robinson and Gallagher Controversy, edited by W. M. Roger Louis. New York: New Viewpoints.
Goodman, D. and Michael Watts. 1997. Globalising Food : Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring. New York: Routledge.
Hobsbawm, E. J. 1989. The Age of Empire:1875-1914. New York: Vintage Books.
Issawi, C. 1971. The Economic History of Iran. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
––––. 1991. “European Economic Penetration:1872-1921.” Pp. 590-607 in The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 7, edited by P. Avery, G. Hambly, and C. Melville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keddie, N. R. 1966. Religion and Rebellion in Iran: The Tobacco Protest of 1891-1892. London: Cass.
––––. 1980. Iran: Religion, Politics and Society. London: Frank Cass and Company.
Lambton, A. K. S. 1953. Landlords and Peasants in Persia. London: Oxford University Press.
––––. 1965. “The Tobacco Regie: Prelude to Revolution, Part I.” Studia Islamica 22:119-157.
Marx, Karl. 1973. Grundrisse. New York: Vintage.
MacLean, H. W. 1971. “Report on the Conditions and Prospects of British Trade in Persia.” Pp. 136-142 in The Economic History of Iran:1800-1914, edited by C. Issawi. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McDaniel, R. A. 1971. “Economic Change and Economic Resiliency in 19th Century Persia”. Iranian Studies 4:36-49.
McMichael, P. 1994. The Global Restructuring of the Agro-Food System. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
––––. 1995. Food and Agrarian Orders in the World-Economy. Westport: Praeger.
Nowshiravani, V. F. 1981. “The Beginnings of Commercialized Agriculture in Iran.” Pp. 547-591 in The Islamic Middle East, 1700-1900: Studies in Economic and Social History, edited by A. L. Udovitch. New Jersey: The Darwin Press, Inc.
Petrushevski, I. P. 1966. Keshvarzi Va Munasebate Arzi dar Irane Ahde Moghol (Agriculture and Agrarian Relations in Iran in the Mongol Period). Translated by Karim Keshavarz, Tehran: Tehran University Press.
Polanyi, K. 1994 . The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press.
Poliak, A. N. 1939. Feudalism in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon. London: The Royal Asiatic Society.
Ravandi, M. 1975. Tarikhe Ejtema iye Iran. Vol. 2 (The Social History of Iran). Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Stavrianos, L. S. 1981. The Global Rift: The Third World Comes of Age. New York: William Morrow.
Tomich, Dale. 1988.” The ‘Second Slavery’: Bonded Labor and the Transformation of the Nineteenth-Century World Economy.” Pp. 103-117 in Rethinking the Nineteenth Century: Contradictions and Movements, edited by Francisco O. Ramirez. New York: Greenwood Press.
Weber, M. 1949. The Methodology of Social Sciences. Glencoe: The Free Press.
Zarinkoob, A. 1972. “Dar Piramoone Enteshare Az Saba taa Nima” (On the Publication of From Saba to Nima). Rahnamaye Ketaab (Mordad/Shahrivar):1-35.