Gender, Subsistence Fishing and Economic Change: A Comparative Study in Southern Veracruz, Mexico

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.sidebar##

Published Jan 15, 2021
Verónica Vázquez-García María Montes-Estrada

Abstract

Research on gender, the environment and development has shown that conservation programs have usually relied on gender stereotypes (women as environmental destroyers, victims or privileged resource managers), thereby neglecting the complex social arrangements that rule women’s and men’s use of natural resources in particular economic and environmental contexts.

?Drawing on the Gender, Environment and Development (GED) literature, this paper examines the gender relations involved in the subsistence fishing activities of Ixhuapan and Ocozotepec, two indigenous communities of southern Veracruz, Mexico.

The paper shows that land tenure and economic changes have placed spatial restrictions on women’s fishing activities, particularly in Ixhuapan, while environmental deterioration has led to a decrease in the fishing species of both communities. Yet women continue to play a key role in river food provisioning and as such, they are important actors in local resource management. This role needs to be acknowledged when designing conservation programs in order to ensure the long-term availability of water resources and to increase women’s control over the ones that they presently manage.

How to Cite

[1]
Vázquez-García, V. and Montes-Estrada, M. 2021. Gender, Subsistence Fishing and Economic Change: A Comparative Study in Southern Veracruz, Mexico . The International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food. 14, (Jan. 2021), 1-22. DOI:https://doi.org/10.48416/ijsaf.v14i.302.
Abstract 4 | PDF Downloads 5

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Alcalá, Graciela, 1992. La pêche a la crevette dans la lagune de Cuyutlán (Mexique). Une activité d’hommes et de femmes. In Anthropologie maritime No. 4, pp. 31-39.
Allison, Charlene, Sue-Ellen Jacobs and Mary Porter, 1989. Winds of Change. Women in Northwest Commercial Fishing. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 203 pp.
Benería, Lourdes and Gita Sen, 1997. Accumulation, Reproduction and Women’s Role in Economic Development. Boserup Revisted. In The Women, Gender and Development Reader. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff and Nan Wiegerma (eds.). London: Zed Books, pp. 42-50.
Benería, Lourdes and Martha Roldán, 1987. The Crossroads of Class and Gender. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 204 pp.
Bennett, Elizabeth, 2004. Gender, Fisheries and Development. In Marine Policy No. 29, pp. 451-459.
Binkley, Marian, 2005. The Bitter End: Women’s Crucial Role in the Nova Scotia Costal Fishery. In Changing Tides. Gender, Fisheries and Globalization. Barbara Neis, Marian Binkley, Siri Gerrard and Maria Cristina Maneschy (eds.). Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 64-76.
Binkley, Marian, 2000. ‘Getting By’ in Though Times. Coping with the Fishery Crisis. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 323-332.
Binkley, Marian, 1996. Nova Scotian Fishing Families Coping with the Fisheries Crisis. In Anthropologica Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 197-220.
Braidotti, Rosi, E. Charkiewicz, S. Hausler and S. Wirninga, 1997. Women, the Environment and Sustainable Development. In The Women, Gender and Development Reader. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff and Nan Wiegerma (eds.). London: Zed Books, pp. 54-61.
Castro, Roberto, 1996. En busca del significado: supuestos alcances y limitaciones del análisis cualitativo. In Szasz, Ivonne and Susana Lerner (eds.), Para comprender la subjetividad. Mexico: El Colegio de México, pp. 57-85.
Cole, Sally, 1991. Women of the Praia. Work and Lives in a Portuguese Coastal Community. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 189 pp.
Cuello, Delia, 1986. Los pescadores, comuneros, campesinos de Zirahuen. In La pesca en aguas interiores. Arturo Argueta, Delia Cuello and Francois Lartigue (eds). Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, pp. 130-157.
Davis, Dona, 2000. Gendered Cultures of Conflict and Discontent. Living ‘the Crisis’ in a Newfoundland Community. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 343-353.
Dewey, Katherine, 1989. Nutrition and the Commoditization of Food Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean In Social Science Medicine Vol. 28 No. 5, pp. 415-424.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 15 March 2001, 128 pp.
FAO, 1996. An Assessment of the Role of Women in Fisheries in Vanuatu. Rome: FAO, available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5195E/X5195E00.htm, 20/08/06.
FAO, 1989. Les femmes dans les communautés de pécheurs. Directives. Rome: FAO, 63 pp.
Gerrard, Siri, 2000. The Gender Dimensions of Local Festivals. The Fishery Crisis and Women’s and Men’s Political Actions in North Norwegian Communities. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 299-309.
Hall-Arber, Madeleine, 1996. Hear Me Speak: Italian and Portuguese Women Facing Fisheries Management. In Anthropologica Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 221-248.
Hapke, Holly, 2001. Gender, Work and Household Survival in South Indian Fishing Communities: A Preliminary Analysis. In The Professional Geographer Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 313-331.
Kabeer, Naila, 1994. Reversed Realities. Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London & New York: Verso, 345 pp.
Leach, Melissa, Susan Joekes and Cathy Green, 1995. Editorial: Gender Relations and Environmental Change. In International Development Studies Bulletin Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 1-8.
Lara Flores, Sara María, 1996. “El papel de las mujeres en la nueva estructura de los mercados de trabajo rur-urbanos”. In La sociedad rural mexicana frente al nuevo milenio. Hubert C. De Grammont (ed.). Mexico: UNAM, INAH & Plaza y Valdés, pp. 145-166.
Lartigue, Francois, 1986. Las pescas tarahumaras en Tehuerichi. In La pesca en aguas interiores. Arturo Argueta, Delia Cuello and Francois Lartigue (eds.). México: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, pp. 158-199.
MacDonald, Martha, 2005. Lessons and Linkages: Building a Framework for Analyzing the Relationships between Gender, Globalization and the Fisheries. In Changing Tides. Gender, Fisheries and Globalization. Barbara Neis, Marian Binkley, Siri Gerrard and Maria Cristina Maneschy (eds.). Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 18-27.
Medard, Modesta and Douglas C. Wilson, 1996. Changing Economic Problems for Women in the Nile Perch Fishing Communities on Lake Victoria. In Anthropologica Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 149-172.
Mohanty, 1997. Under Western Eyes. Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses In The Women, Gender and Development Reader. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff and Nan Wiegerma (eds.). London: Zed Books, pp. 79-86.
Moore, Henrietta, 1988. Feminism and Anthropology. Mineapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 246 pp.
Moser, Caroline, 1989. Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender Needs. In World Development Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1799-1825.
Nadel-Klein, Jane, 2000. Granny Baited the Lines. Perpetual Crisis and the Changing Role of Women in Scottish Fishing Communities. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 363-372.
Neis, Barbara, 2005. Introduction. In Changing Tides. Gender, Fisheries and Globalization. Barbara Neis, Marian Binkley, Siri Gerrard and Maria Cristina Maneschy (eds.). Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 1-17.
Neis, Barbara and Maria Cristina Maneshy, 2005. Moving Forward. In Changing Tides. Gender, Fisheries and Globalization. Barbara Neis, Marian Binkley, Siri Gerrard and Maria Cristina Maneschy (eds.). Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 245-255.
Paré, Luisa, Emilia Velázquez, Rafael Gutiérrez, Fernando Ramírez, Álvaro Hernández, Marta Patricia Lozada, Hugo Perales and José Luis Blanco, 1997. La Reserva Especial de la Biosfera, Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz: diagnóstico y perspectiva. Mexico: Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca/Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 118 pp.
Paré, Luisa and Emilia Velázquez, 1997. Gestión de recursos naturales y opciones agroecológicas para la Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz. Mexico: UNAM, 248 pp.
Paré, Luisa, Emilia Velázquez and Rafael Gutiérrez, 1993. La ganadería en la Sierra de Santa Marta: una primera aproximación. In Desarrollo y medio ambiente en Veracruz. Impactos económicos, ecológicos y culturales de la ganadería en Veracruz. Narciso Barrera and Hipólito Rodríguez (eds.). Mexico: Fundación Friedrich Ebert, pp. 129-165.
Parpart, Jane, Patricia Connelly and Eudine Barriteau (eds.), 2000. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development. Ottawa: IDRC, 215 pp.
Portacarrero, Patricia, 1990. Mujer en el desarrollo. Balance y propuestas. Perú: Flora Tristán, 291 pp.
Pratt, Marion, 1996. Useful Disasters: The Complexity of Response to Stress in a Tropical Lake Ecosystem. In Anthropologica Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 125-148.
Rai, Shirin M. 2002. Gender and the Political Economy of Development. United Kingdom: Blackwell, 264 pp.
Ramírez, Fernando, 1999. Flora y vegetación de la Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz. Bachelor Thesis in Biology. Mexico: UNAM, 409 pp.
Rico, María Nieves, 1997 Género, medio ambiente y sustentabilidad del desarrollo. Paper presented at the 7th Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into Latin American Social and Economic Development. Santiago, Chile, November 19-21 1997, 46 pp.
Rocheleau, Dianne, Thomas-Slayter and Esther Wangari, 1996. Gender and Environment. A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective. In Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter and Esther Wangari (eds.). Feminist Political Ecology. Global issues and local experiences. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 3-23.
Politis, Gustavo, Gustavo Martínez and Julián Rodríguez, 1997. Caza, recolección y pesca como estrategia de explotación de recursos en forestas tropicales lluviosas: los Nukak de la amazonía colombiana. In Revista Española de Antropología Americana No. 27, pp. 167-197.
Ramírez, Mayans J.A., M. García Campos, R. Cervantes Bustamante, N. Mata Rivera, F. Zárate Mondragón, T. Mason Cordero and A. Villareal Espinosa, 2003. Transición alimentaria en México. In An Pediatr Vol. 58 No. 6, pp. 568-573.
Rubinoff, Janet Ahner, 1999. Fishing for Status: Impact of Development on Goa’s Fisherwomen. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 631-644.
Sachs, Carolyn, 1996. Gendered Fields. Rural Women, Agriculture and Environment. Colorado: Westview Press, 205 pp.
Savard, Catherine and Julia Fraga, 2005. A Bottom-Up Approach to the Creation of a Marine protected Area in San Felipe, Mexico: Gender Relations, Governance Mechanisms and Globalization. In Changing Tides. Gender, Fisheries and Globalization. Barbara Neis, Marian Binkley, Siri Gerrard and Maria Cristina Maneschy (eds.). Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 169-181.
Skaptadottir, Unnur, 2000. Women Coping with Change in an Icelandic Fishing Community: A Case Study. In Women’s Studies International Forum Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 311-321.
Stephen, Lynn, 1991. Zapotec Women. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 316 pp.
Szala-Meneok, Karen and Kara McIntosh, 1996. Craft Development and Development through Crafts: Adaptive Strategies of Labrador Women in a Changing Fishery In Anthropologica Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 249-270.
Thompson, Paul, 1985. Women in the Fishing. The Roots of Power between the Sexes. In Comparative Studies in Society and History Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 3-32.
Turati, Marcela, 1998. Definen por regiones combate a la pobreza. In Reforma, Mexico, September 21rst 1998.
Vázquez, Verónica, María de Lourdes Godínez, Ana Silvia Ortiz and María Montes, 2004. Uncultivated Foods in Southern Veracruz, Mexico: Establishing the Links between Ecosystem Health, Food Availability and Human Nutrition. In Ecohealth Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.131-143.
Vázquez, Verónica, 2002. ¿Quién cosecha lo sembrado? Relaciones de género en un área natural protegida mexicana. Mexico: Plaza y Valdés Editores & Colegio de Postgraduados, 249 pp.
Velázquez, Emilia, 1996. Cambios en el uso del suelo y pérdida de la biodiversidad en el siglo XX en la Sierra de Santa Marta. In Desarrollo Sustentable y conservación de la biodiversidad: un estudio de caso en la Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz, México. R. Cervigni and Fernando Ramírez (eds.) Mexico: Proyecto Sierra de Santa Marta, Global Environment Facility & Centro Internacional para el Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, pp. 28-52.
Young, Kate, 1997. Gender and Development. In The Women, Gender and Development Reader. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff and Nan Wiegerma (eds.). London: Zed Books, pp. 51-54.
Zavella, Patricia, 1991. Mujeres in Factories. Race and Class Perspectives on Women, Work and Family. In Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge. Micaela di Leaonardo (ed.). California: University of California Press, pp. 312-336.
Section
Articles